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The Year’s Best Short Science Fiction: 1959

1959-SF-Magazines

Few people think about 1959 today – at least not consciously. Yet, 1959 hangs around. If you hear “So What” by Miles Davis or “Take Five” by The Dave Brubeck Quartet, that year creeps back into your mind. And if you play “Moanin’” by Art Blakey – now that’s 1959 down and dirty! 59′ also returns if you throw on the Blu-ray of Some Like it HotBen-HurAnatomy of a Murder, or catch a rerun of The Twilight ZoneRawhideBonanza, or The Untouchables. Three novels dominated The New York Times bestsellers list in 1959 were Doctor ZhivagoExodus, and Advise and Consent, although it might be more common to be reading A Separate PeaceA Canticle for Leibowitz, or Starship Trooperstoday.

I’ve become an aficionado of short science fiction, a particularly minor aspect of pop culture, but even here 1959 still matters. I’ve always wanted to pick a year and read all the science fiction magazines that came out that year. But I’m lazy. However, back in 2014, Gideon Marcus did just that for his blog Galactic Journey. This week I read all his columns covering 1959.

I’ve always wondered if anthologists have missed great stories. Are there a few classics still to be unearthed? In 1960 Judith Merril told us which stories she liked from 1959. Bold ones are the titles Marcus also liked.

  • “No Fire Burns” by Avram Davidson (Playboy)
  • No, No, Not Rogov!” by Cordwainer Smith (If)
  • “The Shoreline at Sunset” by Ray Bradbury (F&SF)
  • “The Dreamsman” by Gordon R. Dickson (Star Science Fiction No. 6)
  • “Multum in Parvo” by Jack Sharkey (The Gent)
  • Flowers for Algernon” by Daniel Keyes (F&SF)
  • A Death in the House” by Clifford D. Simak (Galaxy)
  • “Mariana” by Fritz Leiber (Fantastic)
  • Day at the Beach” by Carol Emshwiller (F&SF)
  • “Plenitude” by Will Mohler (F&SF)
  • The Man Who Lost the Sea” by Theodore Sturgeon (F&SF)
  • “Make a Prison” by Lawrence Block (Science Fiction Stories)
  • What Now, Little Man?” by Mark Clifton (F&SF)

Why did Merril miss “All You Zombies—” by Robert A. Heinlein that year? It was on her honorable mention list. I’ve read in later years Heinlein wanted too much to reprint his stories so it might have been true in 1960 too. Gideon Marcus didn’t read Fantastic, the 1959 men’s magazines, or original anthologies, so he gave no opinion on those stories.

Also, in 1960, fans voted the Hugo award for Best Short Fiction:

Winner:

  • “Flowers for Algernon” by Daniel Keyes (F&SF)

Runner-ups:

  • “The Alley Man” by Philip José Farmer (F&SF)
  • “The Pi Man” by Alfred Bester (F&SF)
  • “The Man Who Lost the Sea” by Theodore Sturgeon (F&SF)
  • “Cat and Mouse” by Ralph Williams (Astounding)

Why wasn’t “All You Zombies—” among the top stories nominated for a Hugo? Fans loved three stories that Merril overlooked – “The Alley Man,” “The Pi Man” and “Cat and Mouse.” All three were on her honorable mention list, but it included over a hundred stories. Those three weren’t popular with Gideon Marcus either.

We never know if the stories anthologists published as the best of the year are their exact best of the year, or the stories they could get the rights to publish.

In 1990 Isaac Asimov and Martin H. Greenberg told us their favorite in The Great SF Stories 21 (1959). Stories in bold are those that Merril didn’t pick in 1960.

  • Make a Prison” by Lawrence Block (Science Fiction Stories)
  • The Wind People” by Marion Zimmer Bradley (If)
  • “No, No, Not Rogov!” by Cordwainer Smith (If)
  • What Rough Beast?” by Damon Knight (F&SF)
  • The Alley Man” by Philip José Farmer (F&SF)
  • “Day at the Beach” by Carol Emshwiller (F&SF)
  • The Malted Milk Monster” by William Tenn (Galaxy)
  • The World of Heart’s Desire” by Robert Sheckley (Playboy)
  • “The Man Who Lost the Sea” by Theodore Sturgeon (F&SF)
  • “A Death in the House” by Clifford D. Simak (Galaxy)
  • The Pi Man” by Alfred Bester (F&SF)
  • “Multum in Parvo” by Jack Sharkey (The Gent)
  • “What Now, Little Man?” by Mark Clifton (F&SF)
  • Adrift on the Policy Level” by Chan Davis (The Expert Dreamers)

Asimov and Greenberg added 8 stories that Merril didn’t anthologize, while still ignoring “Cat and Mouse” but remembered “The Pi Man.” In the early years of their series, Asimov and Greenberg would give the Heinlein stories they wanted to include a placeholder page in their anthologies. It told readers they couldn’t get the rights to publish Heinlein’s story, but they would have included it as one of the best of the year stories. They stopped even that recognition after a while. I assumed “didn’t get the rights” meant they didn’t want to pay Heinlein’s price.

In 2014 Gideon Marcus identified his favorites at Galactic Journey. His is a longer list than the others. The stories below are Gideon’s 5-stars or highly recommended, or his Galactic Stars Awards recommendations. I’ve cobbled this list together from my reading notes, and they are in no order. I’ve bolded stories the others didn’t recognize.

  • “Flowers for Algernon” by Daniel Keyes (F&SF)
  • “The Man Who Lost the Sea” by Theodore Sturgeon (F&SF)
  • “What Rough Beast” by Damon Knight (F&SF)
  • This Earth of Hours” by James Blish (F&SF)
  • To Fell a Tree” by Robert F. Young (F&SF)
  • The Good Work” by Theodore L. Thomas (If)
  • The City of Force” by Daniel Galouye (Galaxy)
  • The Sky People” by Poul Anderson (F&SF)
  • Cat and Mouse” by Ralph Williams (Astounding)
  • Seeling” by Katherine MacLean (Astounding)
  • Whatever Counts” by Frederik Pohl (Galaxy)
  • Return to Prodigal” by J. T. McIntosh (If)
  • “Death in the House” by Clifford D. Simak (Galaxy)
  • The Aliens” by Murray Leinster (Astounding)
  • Someone to Watch Over Me” by Christopher Grimm (Galaxy)
  • Operation Incubus” by Poul Anderson (F&SF)
  • “What Now, Little Man?” by Mark Clifton (F&SF)

Marcus finally confirms the Hugo nominated “Cat and Mouse.” Most of the previously unremembered stories that Marcus rediscovered were not on anybody else’s list. “The Aliens” was reprinted in The World Turned Upside Down, ed. Drake, Baen, and Flint, 2004, and “The Sky People” were on a list of all-time favorite stories by Gardner Dozois. My guess is these stories need to be reread and reevaluated, but they might be like Pohl’s “Whatever Counts” – just standout stories for the issue, and not all-time classics. I thought “Whatever Counts” was quite innovative – it opens with a dramatic scene of parents trying to burp a baby in freefall and eventually explores different states of consciousness. If I was doing an anthology of Forgotten 1950s SF Stories, I’d include it. But I can’t say it’s a classic like “So What” or “Take Five” are for 1959 jazz. SF’s version of those jazz classics would be “Flowers for Algernon” and “All You Zombies—”

Marcus didn’t say much about “All You Zombies—” but he did rate the March F&SF issue at 4 to 4.5 stars, meaning there must have been some 5-star stories in that issue. He never said which ones, and he did say that F&SF had eleven 5-star stories for 1959. I can only identify eight by reading the columns. Maybe “All You Zombies—” was one. Because Marcus didn’t gush over the obvious classics, maybe he was specifically trying to promote overlooked stories.

In 2018 we created The Classics of Short Science Fiction that identified just four stories from 1959. They each had five or more citations – the requirement to make the list. They were:

  • “Flowers for Algernon” by Daniel Keyes (12)
  • “All You Zombies—” by Robert A. Heinlein (11)
  • “The Man Who Lost the Sea by Theodore Sturgeon (7)
  • “The Pi Man” by Alfred Bester (5)

If Merril and Asimov/Greenberg anthologies had included “All You Zombies—” it would have gotten 14 citations, making it the most remembered SF story of 1959. It’s interesting that both “All You Zombies—” and “Flowers for Algernon” have been made into movies.

If you add in stories that got at least three citations the list would expand to:

  • “The Wind People” by Marion Zimmer Bradley (4)
  • “The Store of the Worlds” by Robert Sheckley (3)
  • “No, No, Not Rogov!” by Cordwainer Smith (3)
  • “The Alley Man” by Philip José Farmer (3)

When we do version 2.0 of The Classics of Short Science Fiction these four stories might get more citations, especially if I use Gideon’s picks as a citation source – that would at least put “The Wind People” on The Classics of Short Fiction list (unless I up the minimum citation requirement – now at 5).

If someone in 2019 created a new anthology series for the best short SF of the year, what should it contain? After 60 years have the classic short SF finally been identified? And if an anthologist in 2059 collected The Best Short SF of 1959 would they see the same classics we do today? Are there still SF stories from 1959 that haven’t revealed their genius yet?

And as Paul Fraser pointed out the stories above are mostly American and that Marcus didn’t read the British SF magazines New WorldsScience Fantasy or Science Fiction Adventures. And the above lists ignore the rest of the world. We know Merril knew about Russian science fiction because she edited an anthology of Russian SF. Hopefully, by 2059 we’ll know more about the best 1959 SF short stories from around the world.

You can play with our database to create lists of best stories of the year lists.

James Wallace Harris, May 4, 2019

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  1. P. F. NelP. F. NelI think the problem with “All You Zombies—” as far as Judith Merril is concerned may be that she simply didn’t like Heinlein. This is based on something I read, but unfortunately I can no longer remember what or where. Certainly their politics were poles apart. Of course, I may be completely mistaken, since there was correspondence between them that continued after 1959.Bradbury’s “The Shoreline at Sunset” was first published in F&SF. In The Day It Rained Forever it appeared as “The Sunset Harp”. This was a UK-only collection, appearing at almost the same time as the US version, A Medicine for Melancholy, with a slightly different TOC.I have four clear favorites from 1959: “Flowers for Algernon”, “The Man Who Lost the Sea”, “The Store of the Worlds” (I prefer the original Playboy title, “The World of Heart’s Desire”), and “Day at the Beach”. The Keyes and the Sheckley are emotionally moving—my kind of thing.The Heinlein is brilliant, but the four I picked above were better reads for me. The Bradbury story was good, too, and so was the Cordwainer Smith.In 1959, F&SF proved that it was now the best source of SF/fantasy short stories … five of the last seven stories I’ve mentioned were from F&SF. And just for good measure, they reprinted Anthony Boucher’s classic “The Quest for Saint Aquin” that year as well.ReplyLike
    1. jameswharrisP. F. NelI forget that ISFDB isn’t always perfect in publication order. I’ll fix that in the text thanks.I’m not sure if Merril wouldn’t ignore a good story just because she didn’t like the author.And your favorites tend to jive with the others. Doesn’t that suggest that the stories that most people love are the ones that will stand out in the long run?ReplyLike
  2. galacticjourney.orgWhat a great article, James! Thank you for doing this.This definitely was a great year for F&SF, such a great mag compared to how it fared in the Davidson years (which I’m still slogging through).As for the undercount for five-star stories, I wasn’t putting individual ratings on stories yet (at least in print) and not all stories that got the Galactic Star were five-star stories (and not all of the best stories got stars — there were limited slots. The fact that there were F&SF five-star stories that DIDN’T make it into the stars is a testament to the magazine’s overall quality). However, looking at my notes, I see that I gave All You Zombies four stars. Plenitude got three. Your assessment of Whatever Counts is appropriate; it’s an excellent piece, and one of the very few novellas of the year, but perhaps not super enduring.After 1959, I got better about showing my math. 🙂Also, we didn’t start covering the other mags until 1961, so there were some significant omissions. These days, there are very few stories that escape our sight, which is a tremendous feat when you think about it!Gideon(P.S. Describing anything MZB wrote as a classic is problematic these days, and the odd incestuous theme of The Wind People becomes a lot better explained in light of the recent revelations)ReplyLike
    1. jameswharrisgalacticjourney.orgWell, Gideon, is the list as shown fair enough, or would you like to make some changes? Or have you thought about 1959 since then and would like to make some changes or additions?I’m afraid I haven’t read any Marion Zimmer Bradley. Why is she a problem today?I’m looking forward to reading through the 1960 columns. Thanks again for Galactic Journey.ReplyLike
      1. galacticjourney.orgjameswharrisI think the list is fine. I don’t think I’d change much.As for MZB, this is a start. http://galacticjourney.org/april-18-1964-a-firm-line-the-may-1964-fantasy-and-science-fiction/ReplyLike
  3. P. F. NelP. F. NelGosh, I’m repulsed by what I’ve read about MZB … but I must admit liking “The Wind People”.ReplyLike
  4. jameswharrisI’m totally out of the loop when it comes to MZB gossip.ReplyLike
  5. Writers Aiming to Get Into Print are Aiming Too Low – Classics of Science Fiction

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Pro Football Hall of Fame

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Location of Pro Football Hall of FameLocation of Pro Football Hall of Fame
Established1963
Location2121 George Halas Dr NW, Canton, Ohio
Coordinates40°49′16″N 81°23′52″WCoordinates40°49′16″N 81°23′52″W
TypeProfessional sports hall of fame
Visitors191,943 (2010)[1]
PresidentC. David Baker
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The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for professional American football, located in Canton, Ohio. Opened in 1963, the Hall of Fame enshrines exceptional figures in the sport of professional football, including players, coaches, franchise owners, and front-office personnel, almost all of whom made their primary contributions to the game in the National Football League (NFL); the Hall inducts between four and eight new enshrinees each year. The Hall of Fame’s Mission is to “Honor the Heroes of the Game, Preserve its History, Promote its Values & Celebrate Excellence EVERYWHERE.”

As of 2020, there are a total of 341 members of the Hall of Fame,[2] 189 of whom are living. Members are referred to as “Gold Jackets” due to the distinctive gold jackets they receive during the induction ceremony. Between four and eight new inductees are normally enshrined every year. In 2020, an additional 15 members, known as the “Centennial Slate”, will be inducted into the Hall of Fame to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the NFL.[3]

Contents

History[edit]

Old entrance to The Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio

The community of Canton, Ohio successfully lobbied the NFL to have the Hall of Fame built in their city for three reasons: first, the NFL was founded in Canton on September 17, 1920[4] (at that time it was known as the American Professional Football Association); second, the now-defunct Canton Bulldogs were a successful pro football team and the NFL’s first two-time NFL champion (1922 and 1923). Third, the Canton community held a fundraising effort that garnered nearly $400,000 (equivalent to $2,594,000 in 2018) to get the Hall of Fame built.[5] Groundbreaking for the building was held on August 11, 1962. The original building contained just two rooms, and 19,000 square feet (1,800 m2) of interior space.[6]

In April 1970, ground was broken for the first of many expansions. This first expansion cost $620,000, and was completed in May 1971. The size was increased to 34,000 square feet (3,200 m2) by adding another room. The pro shop opened with this expansion. This was also an important milestone for the Pro Football Hall of Fame, as yearly attendance passed the 200,000 mark for the first time. This was at least in some part due to the increase in popularity of professional football caused by the advent of the American Football League and its success in the final two AFL-NFL World Championship games.[6]Inside the original structure in 2008.

In November 1977, work began on another expansion project, costing US$1,200,000. It was completed in November 1978, enlarging the gift shop and research library, while doubling the size of the theater. The total size of the hall was now 50,500 square feet (4,690 m2), more than 2.5 times the original size.[6]

The building remained largely unchanged until July 1993. The Hall then announced yet another expansion, costing US$9,200,000, and adding a fifth room. This expansion was completed in October 1995. The building’s size was increased to 82,307 square feet (7,647 m2). The most notable addition was the GameDay Stadium, which shows an NFL Filmsproduction on a 20-foot (6.1 m) by 42-foot (13 m) Cinemascope screen.[6]

In 2013, the Hall of Fame completed its largest expansion and renovation to date. Currently, the Hall of Fame consists of 118,000 square feet.

Johnson Controls Hall of Fame Village, an estimated $900 million expansion project adjacent to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, has completed Phase I of construction; preparations for beginning Phase II are currently underway.[7][8]

Executive Directors/Presidents of Hall of Fame[edit]

  • Dick McCann (April 4, 1962 – November 1967)
  • Dick Gallagher (April 1968 – December 31, 1975)
  • Pete Elliott (February 1979 – October 31, 1996)
  • John Bankert (November 1, 1996 – December 31, 2005)
  • Steve Perry (April 24, 2006 – January 2014)
  • David Baker (January 6, 2014 – present)[9]

Inductees[edit]

The Hall is made up of several sections, with display of inductees at its heart.Main article: List of Pro Football Hall of Fame inductees

Through 2018, all players in the hall except one, Buffalo Bills guard Billy Shaw, played at least some part of their professional career in the NFL, whereas Shaw played his entire career in the American Football League (AFL) prior to the 1970 AFL–NFL merger). Though several Hall of Famers have had AFL, Canadian Football LeagueWorld Football LeagueUnited States Football LeagueArena Football League and/or Indoor Football League experience, and there is a division of the Hall devoted to alternative leagues such as these, to this point no players have made the Hall without having made significant contributions to either the NFL, AFL or All-America Football Conference. For CFL stars, there is a corresponding Canadian Football Hall of Fame; only one player, Warren Moon, and one coach, Bud Grant, are enshrined in both halls.

The Chicago Bears have the most Hall of Famers among the league’s franchises with either 34 or 28 enshrinees depending on whether players that only played a small portion of their careers with the team are counted.[10]

Selection process[edit]

Selection Committee[edit]

Enshrinees are selected by a 48-person committee, largely made up of media members, officially known as the Selection Committee.[11]

Each city that has a current NFL team sends one representative from the local media to the committee. A city with more than one franchise sends a representative for each franchise.

There are also 15 at-large delegates, including one representative from the Pro Football Writers Association. Except for the PFWA representative, who is appointed to a two-year term, all other appointments are open-ended and terminated only by death, incapacitation, retirement, or resignation.[11]

Voting procedure[edit]

Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadiumwith the Hall of Fame in lower right

To be eligible for the nominating process, a player or coach must have been retired for at least five years. Any other contributor such as a team owner or executive can be voted in at any time.[12]

Fans may nominate any player, coach or contributor by simply writing via letter or email to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The Selection Committee is then polled three times by mail (once in March, once in September, and once in October) to eventually narrow the list to 25 semifinalists. In November, the committee then selects 15 finalists by mail balloting. A Seniors and Contributors Committee, subcommittees of the overall Selection Committee, nominate Seniors (those players who completed their careers more than 25 years ago) and Contributors (individuals who made contributions to the game in areas other than playing or coaching). The Seniors Committee and Contributors Committee add two or one finalist(s) on alternating years which makes a final ballot of 18 finalists under consideration by the full committee each year.[12] Committee members are instructed to only consider a candidate’s professional football contributions and to disregard all other factors.[13]

The Selection Committee then meets on “Selection Saturday,” the day before each Super Bowl game to elect a new class. To be elected, a finalist must receive at least 80 percent support from the Board, with at least four, but no more than eight, candidates being elected annually.

2020 Centennial Slate[edit]

In 2020, a special Blue-Ribbon Panel will select an additional 15 new members, known as the Centennial Slate, to be inducted into the Hall of Fame to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the NFL. Among these 15 members, ten will be seniors, three contributors, and two coaches.[3] On January 11 during the weekend of the NFL Divisional playoffs, Hall of Fame president David Baker went on the set of The NFL Today to personally tell Bill Cowher, who was working as an analyst on that pregame show, that he was selected as one of the members of the Centennial Slate. One day later, Baker went on the set of Fox NFL Sunday to inform Jimmy Johnson, working as an analyst on Fox’s studio show, that he was also selected.[14] The rest of the Centennial Slate members was revealed on January 15.[3]

The remaining 13 members of the Centennial Slate elected to the Hall of Fame in 2020 are: Jim CovertWinston HillHarold CarmichaelDuke SlaterEd SprinkleSteve SabolAlex KarrasBobby DillonDonnie ShellGeorge YoungCliff HarrisMac Speedie, and former NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue[15]

Enshrinement ceremony[edit]

A football signed by the 1974 Pro Football Hall of Fame enshrinement class

The enshrinement ceremony is the main event of the annual Enshrinement Week Powered by Johnson Controls that kicks off every NFL season. The celebration is held in Canton, throughout the week surrounding the enshrinement ceremony.[16] All members of the Hall of Fame are invited to attend the annual ceremony.[13]

Enshrinees do not go into the Pro Football Hall of Fame as a member of a certain team. Rather, all of an enshrinee’s affiliations are listed equally.[12] While the Baseball Hall of Fame plaques generally depict each of their inductees wearing a particular club’s cap (with a few exceptions, such as Catfish Hunter and Greg Maddux), the bust sculptures of each Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee make no reference to any specific team. In addition to the bust that goes on permanent display at the Hall of Fame, inductees receive a distinctive Gold Jacket and previous inductees nearly always wear theirs when participating at the new inductee ceremonies.

Previous induction ceremonies were held during the next day (Sunday from 1999–2005, Saturday in 2006), situated on the steps of the Hall of Fame building. Starting in 2002, the ceremony was moved to Fawcett Stadium (now Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium), where it was held from 1963 to 1965. Since 2007, the enshrinement ceremony has been held on the Saturday night, since 2017 two days after the Hall of Fame Game.[17]

Hall of Fame Game[edit]

Main article: Pro Football Hall of Fame Game

The Hall of Fame Game, the annual NFL preseason opener, is played in Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium at Johnson Controls Hall of Fame Village in Canton, Ohio. In 2017, the Hall of Fame Game was held for the first time on Thursday night. The preseason classic kicks off Enshrinement Week Powered by Johnson Controls and officially kicks off the NFL preseason.

Criticism[edit]

The small number of candidates elected each year has helped foster what some perceive as an inequality of representation at certain positions or in certain categories of player, with defensive players in general and defensive backs and outside linebackers in particular, special teams players, wide receivers, deserving players who primarily played on bad teams, and those from the “seniors” category, being slighted. This has included a 2009 The New York Times article which criticized the Hall for not including punter Ray Guy on its ballot, also noting that the Hall did not have an inductee at the time representing the position.[18] (At least two inductees, Sammy Baugh and Yale Lary, punted in addition to playing other positions.) Guy was eventually inducted as part of the 2014 class for the Hall of Fame. There has also been criticism that certain players get overlooked because their team underproduced during their careers.[19]

The Pro Football Hall of Fame is unique among North American major league sports halls of fame in that officials have generally been excluded from the Hall. Only one official, 1966 inductee Hugh “Shorty” Ray, has been enshrined. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and MuseumNaismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame and Hockey Hall of Fame have each inducted game officials as members. In part to rectify the lack of officials and other off-field contributors, the Hall of Fame added a “Contributors” committee beginning with the class of 2015, which will nominate officials, general managers, owners and other positions that have historically been overlooked by the committee at large.[20]

Another prominent absence from the Hall is sports-journalist Howard Cosell, who has yet to be awarded the Pete Rozelle Radio-Television Award despite his well-known association with Monday Night Football. An August 2010 Sports Illustrated article hints that Cosell may have even been “blacklisted” by the NFL.[21][22]

As the late 2010s approached, a number of controversial and polarizing figures began to reach eligibility for the Hall. For example, Darren Sharper‘s career achievements make him an indisputable candidate for the Hall, but there is debate over whether he should be inducted due to his conviction on multiple rape charges after he retired.[23] Terrell Owens‘s exclusion from the Hall in his first two years of eligibility despite his strong individual statistics was a subject of public debate.[24] Owens was elected to the Hall of Fame in 2018, but refused to attend the enshrinement ceremony.[25]Pro Football Hall of Fame (old entrance).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “History of the Pro Football Hall of Fame”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on July 15, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  2. ^ “Pro Football Hall of Fame Enshrinees”. Retrieved January 1,2020.
  3. Jump up to:a b c “15-person centennial slate for HOF revealed Jan. 15 on NFLN”NFL.com. January 8, 2020.
  4. ^ Fiorillo, Steve. “History of the NFL: From the 1890s to the Present”TheStreet. TheStreet, Inc. Retrieved 21 January2019.
  5. ^ “History of the Pro Football Hall of Fame – Visit | Pro Football Hall of Fame Official Site”http://www.profootballhof.com.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d “The Pro Football Hall of Fame: Then and Now”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. January 1, 2005. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  7. ^ “Pro Football Hall of Fame Village announces ‘agreement in principal’ on merger that could bring more cash to project”wkyc3.com. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  8. ^ “Pro Football Hall of Fame Village delays frustrate neighbors in Canton”wkyc3.com. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  9. ^ “History of the Pro Football Hall of Fame”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  10. ^ “Chicago Bears: Team History”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  11. Jump up to:a b “Selection Process”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  12. Jump up to:a b c “Selection Process FAQ”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  13. Jump up to:a b “Canton welcome mat still out for O.J. Simpson”ESPN.com. July 21, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  14. ^ “Jimmy Johnson joins Bill Cowher as NFL coaches to be part of Hall of Fame’s centennial class of 2020”CBS Sports. January 12, 2020.
  15. ^ http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap3000001096785/article/pro-football-hall-of-fame-centennial-class-revealed
  16. ^ “2012 Pro Football Hall of Fame Enshrinement Festival Schedule”. Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  17. ^ “Class of 2007 Presenters”Pro Football Hall of Fame. July 2, 2007. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  18. ^ Joyner, K C (January 25, 2009). “A Case for Ray Guy Belonging in Pro Football Hall of Fame”The New York Times.
  19. ^ Barall, Andy (February 16, 2012). “How to Fix Football’s Hall of Fame Voting System”The New York Times.
  20. ^ King, Peter (October 21, 2014). Behind the HOF’s New Contributor CommitteeSI.com. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  21. ^ Billson, Marky (August 4, 2010). “As strange as it sounds, Howard Cosell has never won Rozelle award”Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  22. ^ Researcher, NFL (February 4, 2013). “Cronyism on the part of the NFL and the Pro Football Hall of Fame?”NFL Sports Blog.
  23. ^ Ryan Gabrielson. “For Darren Sharper, a Place in Prison. But in Hall of Fame, Too?”ProPublica.
  24. ^ “One Hall of Fame voter sheds light on why Terrell Owens didn’t make it in”.
  25. ^ Bieler, Des (13 July 2018). “Hall of Fame to answer Terrell Owens’ snub by refusing to announce his induction”The Washington Post. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 21 January 2019.

External links[edit]

showvteNational Football League (2019)
showvteMembers of the Pro Football Hall of Fame
showvteAmerican football in the United States

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Published by Ronnie Lowry

Born in Missouri of James and Bettie Lowry. Went to school all over pettis county. Graduated 400 in 600 from Smith Cotton High School 1966 year of grad. BA in Christianity in 1968

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